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Historical Records 21 & 16 February

21 February : International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day has been observed annually since 2000 to promote peace and multilingualism around the world and to protect all mother languages. It is observed on February 21 to recognize the 1952 Bengali Language Movement in Bangladesh.
The day was proclaimed by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in November 1999 (30C/62). In its resolution A/RES/61/266, the United Nations General Assembly called on its member states “to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by people of the world” on 16 May 2009. In the resolution, the General Assembly proclaimed 2008 as the International Year of Languages to promote unity in diversity and international understanding through multilingualism and multiculturalism. The resolution was suggested by Rafiqul Islam, a Bengali living in Vancouver, Canada. He wrote a letter to Kofi Annan on 9 January 1998 asking him to take a step for saving the world’s languages from extinction by declaring an International Mother Language Day. Rafiq proposed the date as 21 February to commemorate the 1952 killings in Dhaka during the Language Movement.

Languages are the most powerful instruments of preserving and developing our tangible and intangible heritage. All moves to promote the dissemination of mother tongues will serve not only to encourage linguistic diversity and multilingual education but also to develop fuller awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions throughout the world and to inspire solidarity based on understanding, tolerance and dialogue.

—From the United Nations International Mother Language Day microsite.

Additional:

Events:
362 – Athanasius returns to Alexandria.
1245 – Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland, is granted resignation after confessing to torture and forgery.
1437 – James I of Scotland is assassinated.
1440 – The Prussian Confederation is formed.
1543 – Battle of Wayna Daga: A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeats a Muslim army led by Ahmed Gragn.
1613 – Mikhail I is unanimously elected Tsar by a national assembly, beginning the Romanov dynasty of Imperial Russia.
1797 – A force of 1,400 French soldiers invaded Britain at Fishguard in support of the Society of United Irishmen. They were defeated by 500 British reservists.
1804 – The first self-propelling steam locomotive makes its outing at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks in Wales.
1808 – Without a previous declaration of war, Russian troops cross the border to Sweden at Abborfors in eastern Finland, thus beginning the Finnish War, in which Sweden will lose the eastern half of the country (i.e. Finland) to Russia.
1828 – Initial issue of the Cherokee Phoenix is the first periodical to use the Cherokee syllabary invented by Sequoyah.
1842 – John Greenough is granted the first U.S. patent for the sewing machine.
1848 – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.
1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Valverde is fought near Fort Craig in New Mexico Territory.
1874 – The Oakland Daily Tribune publishes its first edition.
1878 – The first telephone directory is issued in New Haven, Connecticut.
1885 – The newly completed Washington Monument is dedicated.
1896 – An Englishman raised in Australia, Bob Fitzsimmons, fought an Irishman, Peter Maher, in an American promoted event which technically took place in Mexico, winning the 1896 World Heavyweight Championship in boxing.
1913 – Ioannina is incorporated into the Greek state after the Balkan Wars.
1916 – World War I: In France, the Battle of Verdun begins.
1918 – The last Carolina parakeet dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo.
1919 – German socialist Kurt Eisner is assassinated. His death results in the establishment of the Bavarian Soviet Republic and parliament and government fleeing Munich, Germany.
1921 – Constituent Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Georgia adopts the country’s first constitution.
1921 – Rezā Shāh takes control of Tehran during a successful coup.
1925 – The New Yorker publishes its first issue.
1929 – Warlord Rebellion in northeastern Shandong: The 26,000-strong army of warlord Zhang Zongchang is defeated at Zhifu by just 7,000 National Revolutionary Army troops.
1937 – The League of Nations bans foreign national “volunteers” in the Spanish Civil War.
1945 – World War II: During the Battle of Iwo Jima, Japanese kamikaze planes sink the escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea and damage the USS Saratoga.
1945 – World War II: the Brazilian Expeditionary Force defeat the German forces in the Battle of Monte Castello on the Italian front
1947 – In New York City, Edwin Land demonstrates the first “instant camera”, the Polaroid Land Camera, to a meeting of the Optical Society of America.
1948 – NASCAR is incorporated.
1952 – The British government, under Winston Churchill, abolishes identity cards in the UK to “set the people free”.
1952 – The Bengali Language Movement protests occur at the University of Dhaka in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
1958 – The CND symbol, aka peace symbol, commissioned by the Direct Action Committee in protest against the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, is designed and completed by Gerald Holtom.
1971 – The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is signed at Vienna.
1972 – United States President Richard Nixon visits the People’s Republic of China to normalize Sino-American relations.
1972 – The Soviet unmanned spaceship Luna 20 lands on the Moon.
1973 – Over the Sinai Desert, Israeli fighter aircraft shoot down Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 jet killing 108 people.
1974 – The last Israeli soldiers leave the west bank of the Suez Canal pursuant to a truce with Egypt.
1975 – Watergate scandal: Former United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell and former White House aides H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman are sentenced to prison.
1995 – Steve Fossett lands in Leader, Saskatchewan, Canada becoming the first person to make a solo flight across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.
2013 – At least 17 people are killed and 119 injured following several bombings in the Indian city of Hyderabad.
_

16 February : Historical Records.

Events :
763 – The Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa ends in a decisive Abbasid victory.
1525 – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is founded when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz’s mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.
1535 – Following the Affair of the Placards, French Protestants are burned at the stake in front of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris
1720 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.
1749 – The Teatro Filarmonico in Verona is destroyed by fire. It is rebuilt in 1754.
1774 – Abdul Hamid I became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.
1789 – The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth by William Hill Brown, is printed in Boston.
1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine.
1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate.
1893 – The Tati Concessions Land, formerly part of Matabeleland, is formally annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate, now Botswana.
1908 – New York City passes the Sullivan Ordinance, making it illegal for women to smoke in public, only to have the measure vetoed by the mayor.
1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally takes place.
1915 – Kiwanis International is founded in Detroit.
1919 – A revolutionary Irish parliament is founded and declares the independence of the Irish Republic. One of the first engagements of the Irish War of Independence takes place.
1925 – Albania declares itself a republic.
1931 – Sir Isaac Isaacs is sworn in as the first Australian-born Governor-General of Australia.
1941 – Sparked by the murder of a German officer in Bucharest, Romania, the day before, members of the Iron Guard engaged in a rebellion and pogrom killing 125 Jews.
1948 – The Flag of Quebec is adopted and flown for the first time over the National Assembly of Quebec. The day is marked annually as Québec Flag Day.
1950 – American lawyer and government official Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury.
1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, the First Lady of the United States.
1960 – Little Joe 1B, a Mercury spacecraft, lifts off from Wallops Island, Virginia with Miss Sam, a female rhesus monkey on board.
1960 – Avianca Flight 671 crashes and burns upon landing at Montego Bay, Jamaica killing 37. It is the worst air disaster in Jamaica’s history and the first for Avianca.
1960 – A coal mine collapses at Holly Country, South Africa, killing 435 miners.
1968 – Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh: One of the most publicized and controversial battles of the war begins.
1968 – A B-52 bomber crashes near Thule Air Base, contaminating the area after its nuclear payload ruptures. One of the four bombs remains unaccounted for after the cleanup operation is complete.
1971 – The current Emley Moor transmitting station, the tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, begins transmitting UHF broadcasts.
1976 – Commercial service of Concorde begins with the London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio routes.
1981 – Production of the iconic DeLorean DMC-12 sports car begins in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
1997 – The U.S. House of Representatives votes 395–28 to reprimand Newt Gingrich for ethics violations, making him the first Speaker of the House to be so disciplined.
1999 – War on Drugs: In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepts a ship with over 4,300 kilograms (9,500 lb) of cocaine on board.
2000 – Ecuador: After the Ecuadorian Congress is seized by indigenous organizations, Col. Lucio Gutiérrez, Carlos Solorzano and Antonio Vargas depose President Jamil Mahuad. Gutierrez is later replaced by Gen. Carlos Mendoza, who resigns and allows Vice-President Gustavo Noboa to succeed Mahuad.
2003 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake strikes the Mexican state of Colima, killing 29 and leaving approximately 10,000 people homeless.
2004 – NASA’s MER-A (the Mars Rover Spirit) ceases communication with mission control. The problem lies in the management of its flash memory and is fixed remotely from Earth on February 6.
2005 – In Belmopan, Belize, the unrest over the government’s new taxes erupts into riots.
2009 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a three-week war it had with Hamas. However, intermittent fire by both sides continues in the weeks to follow.
2011 – Anti government demonstrations take place in Tirana, Albania. Five people lose their lives from gunshots, allegedly fired from armed police protecting the Prime Minister’s office. To date, no one has been held accountable for the deaths.
2017 – Over 400 cities across America and 160+ countries worldwide participate in a large-scale women’s march, on Donald Trump’s first full day as President of the United States.
2018 – Rocket Lab’s Electron becomes the first rocket to reach orbit using an electric pump-fed engine and deploys three CubeSats.

Births ::



1264 – Alexander, Prince of Scotland (d. 1284)[1] 1277 – Galeazzo I Visconti, lord of Milan
1338 – Charles V of France (d. 1380)[2] 1493 – Giovanni Poggio, Italian cardinal and diplomat (d. 1556)[3] 1598 – Matsudaira Tadamasa, Japanese samurai and daimyō (d. 1645)[4] 1612 – Henry Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz, count of Nassau-Dietz (d. 1640)
1636 – Melchiorre Cafà, Maltese Baroque sculptor (baptised;[5] d. 1667)
1655 – Antonio Molinari, Italian painter (d. 1704)
1659 – Adriaen van der Werff, Dutch painter (d. 1722)[6] 1675 – Duchess Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg, Margravine of Baden-Baden (d. 1733)
1714 – Anna Morandi Manzolini, Spanish anatomist (d. 1774)
1717 – Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Spanish military officer and governor of Cuba (d. 1779)
1721 – James Murray, Scottish-English general and politician, Governor of Minorca (d. 1794)
1724 – Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée, French rococo painter (d. 1805)
1732 – Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, son of Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis (d. 1797)
1738 – Ethan Allen, American general (d. 1789)
1741 – Chaim of Volozhin, Orthodox rabbi (d. 1821)
1763 – Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre (d. 1794)
1775 – Manuel Garcia, Spanish opera singer and composer (d. 1832)
1784 – Peter De Wint, English painter (d. 1849)
1788 – William Henry Smyth, Royal Navy officer, hydrographer, astronomer and numismatist
1796 – Princess Marie of Hesse-Kassel, consort of George, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1880)
1797 – Joseph Méry, French author and journalist (d. 1866)
1800 – Theodor Fliedner, German Lutheran minister (d. 1864)
1801 – John Batman, Australian entrepreneur and explorer (d. 1839)
1804 – Moritz von Schwind, Austrian painter (d. 1871)
1808 – Juan Crisóstomo Torrico, 16th President of Peru (d. 1875)
1810 – Pierre Louis Charles de Failly, French general (d. 1892)
1811 – James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn, British statesman (d. 1885)
1813 – John C. Frémont, American general, explorer, and politician, 5th Territorial Governor of Arizona (d. 1890)
1813 – Giuseppe Montanelli, Italian statesman and author (d. 1862)
1814 – Johann Georg Theodor Grässe, German bibliographer and historian (d. 1885)
1815 – Horace Wells, American dentist (d. 1848)
1820 – Joseph Wolf, German ornithologist and illustrator (d. 1899)
1820 – Egide Walschaerts, Belgian mechanical engineer (d. 1901)
1824 – Stonewall Jackson, American general (d. 1863)
1827 – Ivan Mikheevich Pervushin, Russian mathematician and theorist (d. 1900)
1829 – Oscar II of Sweden (d. 1907)
1839 – Caterina Volpicelli, Italian Roman Catholic nun (d. 1894)
1840 – Sophia Jex-Blake, English physician and feminist (d. 1912)
1841 – Édouard Schuré, French philosopher and author (d. 1929)
1843 – Émile Levassor, French engineer (d. 1897)
1845 – Harriet Backer, Norwegian painter (d. 1932)



1846 – Pieter Hendrik Schoute, Dutch mathematician and academic (d. 1923)
1846 – Albert Lavignac, French music scholar (d. 1916)
1847 – Joseph Achille Le Bel, French chemist (d. 1930)
1848 – Henri Duparc, French soldier and composer (d. 1933)
1851 – Giuseppe Allamano, Italian Roman Catholic priest (d. 1926)
1854 – Karl Julius Beloch, German classical and economic historian (d. 1929)
1854 – Eusapia Palladino, Italian Spiritualist (d. 1918)
1855 – Princess Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, the youngest daughter of King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies (d. 1874)
1860 – Karl Staaff, Swedish lawyer and politician, 11th Prime Minister of Sweden (d. 1915)
1864 – Israel Zangwill, British author (d. 1926)
1865 – Heinrich Albers-Schonberg, German gynecologist and radiologist (d. 1921)
1867 – Ludwig Thoma, German paramedic and author (d. 1921)
1867 – Maxime Weygand, Belgian-French general (d. 1965)
1868 – Felix Hoffmann, German chemist (d. 1946)
1869 – Grigori Rasputin, Russian Mystic (d. 1916)
1871 – Olga Preobrajenska, Russian ballerina (d. 1962)
1873 – Arturo Labriola, Italian revolutionary syndicalist (d. 1959)
1874 – René-Louis Baire, French mathematician (d. 1932)
1875 – Paul E. Kahle, German orientalist (d. 1964)
1877 – Baldassarre Negroni, Italian director and screenwriter (d. 1948)
1878 – Vahan Tekeyan, Armenian poet and activist (d. 1948)
1879 – Joseph Roffo, French rugby player and tug of war competitor (d. 1933)
1880 – George Van Biesbroeck, Belgian–American astronomer (d. 1974)
1881 – Ernst Fast, Swedish runner (d. 1959)
1881 – André Godard, French archaeologist, architect and historian (d. 1965)
1881 – Ivan Ribar, Yugoslav politician (d. 1968)
1882 – Pavel Florensky, Russian mathematician and theologian (d. 1937)
1882 – Francis Gailey, Australian-American swimmer (d. 1972)
1883 – Olav Aukrust, Norwegian poet and educator (d. 1929)
1883 – Mathias Hynes, British tug of war competitor (d. 1926)
1885 – Duncan Grant, British painter and designer (d. 1978)
1885 – Umberto Nobile, Italian engineer and explorer (d. 1978)
1885 – Harold A. Wilson, English runner (d. 1932)
1886 – John M. Stahl, American director and producer (d. 1950)
1887 – Wolfgang Köhler, German psychologist and phenomenologist (d. 1967)
1887 – Ernest Holmes, American New Thought writer (d. 1960)
1887 – Georges Vézina, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1926)
1889 – Pitirim Sorokin, American sociologist and political activist (d. 1968)
1891 – Albert Battel, German Army lieutenant and lawyer (d. 1952)
1891 – Aldo Silvani, Italian actor (d. 1964)
1891 – Francisco Lázaro, Portuguese marathon runner (d. 1912)
1895 – Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish fashion designer, founded Balenciaga (d. 1972)
1895 – Daniel Chalonge, French astrophysicist and astronomer (d. 1977)
1895 – Noe Itō, Japanese anarchist, author and feminist (d. 1923)
1896 – Guy Gilpatric, American pilot and journalist (d. 1950)
1896 – Paula Hitler, younger sister of Adolf Hitler (d. 1960)
1896 – J. Carrol Naish, American actor (d. 1973)
1896 – Masa Perttilä, Finnish wrestler (d. 1968)
1897 – René Iché, French sculptor (d. 1954)
1898 – Rudolph Maté, Polish-Hungarian-American cinematographer, producer and director (d. 1964)
1898 – Ahmad Shah Qajar, Shah of Persia (d. 1930)
1898 – Eduard Zintl, German chemist (d. 1941)
1899 – John Bodkin Adams, British general practitioner and convict (d. 1983)
1899 – Gyula Mándi, Hungarian footballer and manager (d. 1969)
1899 – Edith Tolkien, wife and muse of J. R. R. Tolkien (d. 1971)
1899 – Alexander Tcherepnin, Russian-American pianist and composer (d. 1977)



1900 – Elof Ahrle, Swedish actor and director (d. 1965)
1900 – Bernhard Rensch, German evolutionary biologist (d. 1990)
1900 – Fernando Quiroga Palacios, Spanish Cardinal (d. 1971)
1901 – Ricardo Zamora, Spanish footballer and manager (d. 1978)
1903 – William Lyon, American film editor (d. 1974)
1903 – Raymond Suvigny, French weightlifter (d. 1945)
1904 – Puck van Heel, Dutch footballer (d. 1984)
1904 – John Porter, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1997)
1905 – Christian Dior, French fashion designer, founded Christian Dior S.A. (d. 1957)
1905 – Karl Wallenda, German-American acrobat and tightrope walker, founded The Flying Wallendas (d. 1978)
1906 – Leo Halle, Dutch footballer (d. 1992)
1906 – Igor Moiseyev, Russian choreographer (d. 2007)
1907 – Carlo Cavagnoli, Italian boxer (d. 1991)
1907 – Jānis Mendriks, Latvian Catholic priest (d. 1953)
1909 – Todor Skalovski, Macedonian composer and conductor (d. 2004)
1909 – Teofilo Spasojević, Serbian footballer (d. 1970)
1910 – Hideo Shinojima, Japanese footballer (d. 1975)
1910 – Albert Rosellini, American lawyer and politician, 15th Governor of Washington (d. 2011)
1910 – Rosa Kellner, German athlete (d. 1984)
1910 – Károly Takács, Hungarian shooter (d. 1976)
1911 – Dick Garrard, Australian wrestler (d. 2003)
1911 – Lee Yoo-hyung, Korean footballer and manager (d. 2003)
1912 – Konrad Emil Bloch, German-American biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2000)
1915 – André Lichnerowicz, French mathematician (d. 1998)
1915 – Orazio Mariani, Italian sprinter (d. 1981)
1916 – Pietro Rava, Italian footballer (d. 2006)
1917 – Erling Persson, H&M founder (d. 2002)
1918 – Jimmy Hagan, English footballer (d. 1998)
1918 – Richard Winters, American soldier (d. 2011)
1918 – Antonio Janigro, Italian cellist and conductor (d. 1989)
1919 – Eric Brown, Scottish-English captain and pilot (d. 2016)
1920 – Errol Barrow, first Prime Minister of Barbados (d. 1987)
1921 – Lincoln Alexander, Canadian lawyer and politician, 23rd Canadian Minister of Labour (d. 2012)
1921 – Andreas Ostler, German bobsledder (d. 1988)
1922 – Telly Savalas, American actor (d. 1994)
1922 – Paul Scofield, English actor (d. 2008)
1922 – Predrag Vranicki, Marxist Humanist (d. 2002)
1923 – Lola Flores, Spanish singer, dancer, and actress (d. 1995)
1923 – Alberto de Mendoza, Argentine actor (d. 2011)
1923 – Pahiño, Spanish footballer (d. 2012)
1923 – Prince Andrew Romanov, Russian-American artist and author
1924 – Benny Hill, English actor, singer, and screenwriter (d. 1992)
1925 – Charles Aidman, American actor (d. 1993)
1925 – Alex Forbes, Scottish footballer (d. 2014)
1925 – Eva Ibbotson, Austrian-English author (d. 2010)
1925 – Arnold Skaaland, American wrestler and manager (d. 2007)



1926 – Clive Donner, British director (d. 2010)
1926 – Franco Evangelisti, Italian composer (d. 1980)
1926 – Steve Reeves, American bodybuilder (d. 2000)
1926 – Roger Taillibert, French architect
1926 – Robert J. White, American neurosurgeon (d. 2010)
1927 – Rudolf Kraus, German footballer (d. 2003)
1928 – Gene Sharp, American political scientist and academic, founded the Albert Einstein Institution (d. 2018)
1928 – Reynaldo Bignone, Argentinian general and politician, 41st President of Argentina (d. 2018)
1929 – Radley Metzger, American filmmaker (d. 2017)
1930 – Mainza Chona, Zambian lawyer and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Zambia (d. 2001)
1931 – Yoshiko Kuga, Japanese actress
1933 – Habib Thiam, Senegalese politician (d. 2017)
1934 – Audrey Dalton, Irish actress
1934 – Antonio Karmany, Spanish cyclist
1934 – Alfonso Portugal, Mexican footballer (d. 2016)
1934 – Ann Wedgeworth, American actress (d. 2017)
1936 – Dick Davies, American basketball player (d. 2012)
1937 – Judit Ágoston-Mendelényi, Hungarian fencer (d. 2013)
1937 – Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, the youngest son of Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
1938 – Sandy Barr, American wrestler and referee (d. 2007)
1938 – Romano Fogli, Italian footballer
1938 – Wolfman Jack, American radio host (d. 1995)
1938 – Nicholas Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers, English lawyer and judge, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales
1939 – Paul Genevay, French sprinter
1939 – Friedel Lutz, German footballer
1939 – Steve Paxton, American dancer and choreographer
1939 – Viacheslav Platonov, Russian volleyball player and coach (d. 2005)
1940 – Jack Nicklaus, American golfer and sportscaster
1940 – Patrick Robinson, British novelist
1941 – Sattam bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Saudi Arabian prince (d. 2013)
1941 – Plácido Domingo, Spanish tenor and conductor
1941 – Richie Havens, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2013)
1941 – Mike Medavoy, Chinese-American film producer, co-founded Orion Pictures
1941 – Ivan Putski, Polish-American wrestler and bodybuilder
1941 – Elaine Showalter, American author and critic
1942 – Freddy Breck, German singer, producer, and news anchor (d. 2008)
1942 – Eugène Camara, Prime Minister of Guinea
1942 – Han Pil-hwa, North Korean speed skater
1942 – Mac Davis, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
1942 – Edwin Starr, American singer-songwriter (d. 2003)
1942 – Michael G. Wilson, American producer and screenwriter
1943 – Zdravko Hebel, Croatian water polo player (d. 2017)
1943 – Arnar Jónsson, Icelandic actor
1943 – Alfons Peeters, Belgian footballer (d. 2015)
1943 – Kenzo Yokoyama, Japanese footballer
1944 – Uto Ughi, Italian violinist
1945 – Pete Kircher, English drummer
1945 – Martin Shaw, English actor and producer
1946 – Ichiro Hosotani, Japanese footballer
1946 – Nella Martinetti, Swiss singer (d. 2011)
1946 – Tomás Pineda, El Salvadoran footballer
1946 – Miguel Reina, Spanish footballer
1947 – Jill Eikenberry, American actress
1947 – Andrzej Bachleda, Polish former alpine skier
1947 – Dorian M. Goldfeld, American mathematician
1947 – Pye Hastings, Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist
1947 – Michel Jonasz, French singer-songwriter and actor
1947 – Joseph Nicolosi, American clinical psychologist (d. 2017)
1947 – Giuseppe Savoldi, Italian footballer
1947 – Roberto Zywica, Argentine footballer
1948 – Zygmunt Kukla, Polish footballer (d. 2016)
1948 – Hugo Tocalli, Argentine footballer
1949 – Trương Tấn Sang, Vietnamese politician and 7th President of Vietnam
1949 – Clifford Ray, American basketball coach and player
1950 – Marion Becker, German javelin thrower
1950 – Gary Locke, American politician and diplomat, 36th United States Secretary of Commerce
1950 – José Marín, Spanish racewalker
1950 – Billy Ocean, Trinidadian-English singer-songwriter
1950 – Agnes van Ardenne, Dutch politician and diplomat, Dutch Minister for Development Cooperation
1951 – Eric Holder, American lawyer, judge, and politician, 82nd United States Attorney General
1952 – Marco Camenisch, Swiss activist and murderer
1952 – Werner Grissmann, Austrian alpine skier
1952 – Mikhail Umansky, Russian chess player (d. 2010)
1953 – Paul Allen, American businessman and philanthropist, co-founded Microsoft (d. 2018)[7] 1953 – Felipe Yáñez, Spanish cyclist
1954 – Thomas de Maizière, German politician of the Christian Democratic Union



1954 – Idrissa Ouedraogo, Burkinabé director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2018)
1954 – Phil Thompson, English footballer and coach
1955 – Peter Fleming, American tennis player
1955 – Jeff Koons, American painter and sculptor
1955 – Nello Musumeci, Italian politician and President of Sicily
1956 – Robby Benson, American actor and director
1956 – Geena Davis, American actress and producer
1958 – Matt Salmon, American politician
1958 – Hussein Saeed, Iraqi footballer
1958 – Sergei Walter, Ukrainian politician (d. 2015)
1958 – Michael Wincott, Canadian actor
1959 – Sergei Alifirenko, Russian pistol shooter
1959 – Alex McLeish, Scottish footballer and manager
1960 – Sidney Lowe, American basketball player
1960 – Mike Terrana, American hard rock and heavy metal drummer
1961 – Kevin Cramer, American politician
1961 – Cornelia Pröll, Austrian alpine skier
1961 – Ivo Pukanić Croatian journalist (d. 2008)
1961 – Gary Shaw, English footballer
1961 – Piotr Ugrumov, Russian cyclist
1962 – Tyler Cowen, American economist and academic
1962 – Isabelle Nanty, French actress, director and screenwriter
1962 – Gabriele Pin, Italian footballer and coach
1962 – Zoran Thaler, Slovenian politician
1962 – Erik Verlinde, Dutch theoretical physicist
1962 – Marie Trintignant, French actress (d. 2003)
1963 – Hakeem Olajuwon, Nigerian-American basketball player
1963 – Detlef Schrempf, German basketball player and coach
1964 – Andreas Bauer, German ski jumper
1964 – Tony Dolan, English musician and actor
1964 – Gérald Passi, French footballer
1964 – Ricardo Serna, Spanish footballer
1964 – Aleksandar Šoštar, Serbian water polo player
1964 – Danny Wallace, English footballer
1965 – Robert Del Naja, British artist, musician and singer
1965 – Jam Master Jay, American DJ, rapper, and producer (d. 2002)
1965 – Masahiro Wada, Japanese footballer
1967 – Artashes Minasian, Armenian chess player
1967 – Alfred Jermaniš, Slovenian footballer
1967 – Gorō Miyazaki, Japanese film director and landscaper
1968 – Dmitry Fomin, Soviet and Russian volleyball player
1968 – Ilya Smirin, Israeli chess Grandmaster
1968 – Artur Dmitriev, Soviet and Russian ice skater
1968 – Sébastien Lifshitz, French director
1968 – Charlotte Ross, American actress
1969 – John Ducey, American actor
1969 – Eduard Hämäläinen, Finnish-Belarusian decathlete
1969 – Karina Lombard, French-American actress and singer
1969 – Tsubaki Nekoi, Japanese comic artist
1970 – Alen Bokšić, former Croatian footballer
1970 – Marina Foïs, French actress
1970 – Ken Leung, American actor
1970 – Oren Peli, Israeli-American director, producer and screenwriter
1971 – Uni Arge, Faroese footballer and entertainer
1971 – Rafael Berges, Spanish footballer
1971 – Doug Edwards, American basketball player
1971 – Dmitri Khlestov, Russian footballer
1971 – Dylan Kussman, American actor
1971 – Sergey Klevchenya, Russian speed skater
1971 – Doug Weight, American ice hockey player and coach
1972 – Billel Dziri, Algerian footballer and manager
1972 – Rick Falkvinge, Swedish businessman and politician
1972 – Sead Kapetanović, Bosnian footballer
1972 – Yasunori Mitsuda, Japanese composer and producer
1972 – Cat Power, American singer, musician and actress
1972 – Shawn Rojeski, American curler
1972 – Sabina Valbusa, Italian cross-country skier
1973 – Rob Hayles, English cyclist
1973 – Chris Kilmore, American musician and DJ
1973 – Edvinas Krungolcas, Lithuanian modern pentathlete
1973 – Flavio Maestri, Peruvian footballer
1974 – Malena Alterio, Spanish actress
1974 – Maxwell Atoms, American animator, screenwriter and voice actor



1974 – Kim Dotcom, German-Finnish Internet entrepreneur and political activist
1974 – Arthémon Hatungimana, Burundian middle distance runner
1974 – Vincent Laresca, American actor
1974 – Ulrich Le Pen, French footballer
1974 – Marco Zanotti, Italian cyclist
1975 – Nicky Butt, English footballer and coach
1975 – Casey FitzRandolph, American speedskater
1975 – Yuji Ide, Japanese race car driver
1975 – Ito, Spanish footballer and manager
1975 – Jason Moran, American jazz pianist, composer and educator
1975 – Florin Șerban, Romanian director
1975 – Alyaksandr Yermakovich, Belarusian footballer and manager
1976 – Aivaras Abromavičius, Lithuanian-Ukrainian banker and politician; 15th Ukrainian Minister of Economic Development
1976 – Raivis Belohvoščiks, Latvian cyclist
1976 – Emma Bunton, English singer
1976 – Lars Eidinger, German actor
1976 – Giorgio Frezzolini, Italian footballer
1976 – Igors Stepanovs, Latvian footballer
1977 – Hussein Abdulghani, Saudi Arabian footballer
1977 – Bradley Carnell, South African footballer
1977 – John DeSantis, Canadian actor
1977 – Kirsten Klose, German hammer thrower
1977 – Denis Lunghi, Italian cyclist
1977 – Ulrike Maisch, German runner
1977 – Phil Neville, English footballer and manager
1977 – Michael Ruffin, American basketball player
1977 – Jerry Trainor, American actor, director, and producer
1978 – Faris Al-Sultan, German triathlete
1978 – Peter von Allmen, Swiss cross-country skier
1978 – Hernán Rodrigo López, Uruguayan footballer
1978 – Andrei Zyuzin, Russian ice hockey player
1979 – Quinton Jacobs, Namibian footballer
1979 – Byung-hyun Kim, South Korean baseball player
1979 – Spider Loc, American rapper and actor
1979 – Melendi, Spanish singer
1979 – Brian O’Driscoll, Irish rugby player
1979 – Sebastian Schindzielorz, German footballer
1980 – Troy Dumais, American diver
1980 – Karsten Forsterling, Australian rower
1980 – Dave Kitson, English footballer and manager
1980 – Lee Kyung-won, South Korean badminton player
1980 – Kevin McKenna, Canadian soccer player
1980 – Nana Mizuki, Japanese singer-songwriter and voice actress
1980 – Alexander Os, former Norwegian biathlete
1980 – Xavier Pons, Spanish rally diver
1980 – Mari Possa, El Salvadoran pornographic actress
1980 – Bratislav Ristić, Serbian footballer
1981 – Gillian Chung, Hong Kong singer-songwriter and actress
1981 – Ivan Ergić, Serbian footballer
1981 – Roberto Guana Italian footballer
1981 – Wu Hanxiong, Chinese fencer
1981 – Dany Heatley, Canadian ice hockey player
1981 – Andy Lee, South Korean singer and actor
1981 – Izabella Miko, Polish actress, dancer, and producer
1981 – Shawn Redhage, American-Australian basketball player
1981 – Michel Teló, Brazilian singer-songwriter
1981 – Jung Ryeo-won, South Korean actress
1981 – David F. Sandberg, Swedish filmmaker
1982 – Richard José Blanco, Venezuelan footballer
1982 – Adriano Ferreira Martins, Brazilian footballer
1982 – Nicolas Mahut, French tennis player
1982 – Sarah Ourahmoune, French boxer
1982 – Simon Rolfes, German footballer
1982 – Dean Whitehead, English footballer
1983 – Alex Acker, American basketball player
1983 – Monique Adamczak, Australian tennis player
1983 – Victor Leandro Bagy, Brazilian footballer
1983 – Ranko Despotović, Serbian footballer
1983 – Svetlana Khodchenkova, Russian actress
1983 – Marieke van den Ham, Dutch water polo player
1983 – Billy Mwanza, Zambian footballer
1983 – Maryse Ouellet, French-Canadian wrestler
1983 – Álvaro Quirós, Spanish golfer
1983 – Francesca Segat, Italian swimmer
1983 – Moritz Volz, German footballer
1983 – Kelly VanderBeek, Canadian alpine skier
1984 – Leonardo Burián, Uruguayan footballer



1984 – Luke Grimes, American actor
1984 – Amy Hastings, American track and fielder
1984 – Alex Koslov, Moldovan-American wrestler
1984 – Dejan Milovanović, Serbian footballer
1984 – Wes Morgan, Jamaican footballer
1984 – Haloti Ngata, American footballer
1985 – Markus Berger, Austrian footballer
1985 – Artur Beterbiev, Russian boxer
1985 – Aura Dione, Danish singer and songwriter
1985 – Nick Gehlfuss, American actor
1985 – Salvatore Giunta, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient
1985 – Yumi Hara, Japanese voice actress and singer
1985 – Sasha Pivovarova, Russian model and actress
1985 – Rodrigo San Miguel, Spanish basketball player
1985 – Ri Se-gwang, North Korean artistic gymnast
1985 – Dmitri Sokolov, Russian basketball player
1985 – Ryan Suter, American ice hockey player
1986 – César Arzo, Spanish footballer
1986 – Edson Barboza, Brazilian mixed martial artist
1986 – João Gomes Júnior, Brazilian swimmer
1986 – Javi López, Spanish footballer
1986 – Gina Mambrú, volleyball player from Dominican Republic
1986 – Jonathan Quick, American ice hockey player
1986 – Mike Taylor, American basketball player
1986 – Óscar Vílchez, Peruvian footballer
1986 – Sushant Singh Rajput, Indian actor
1987 – Ioannis Athanasoulas, Greek basketball player
1987 – Andrei Cojocari, Moldovan footballer
1987 – Alexander Dercho, German footballer
1987 – Aida Hadzialic, Swedish politician
1987 – Shaun Keeling, South African rower
1987 – Augustine Kiprono Choge, Kenyan runner
1987 – Kevin Kratz, German footballer
1987 – Danny Munyao, Zambian footballer
1987 – Henrico Drost, Dutch footballer
1987 – Darren Helm, Canadian ice hockey player
1987 – Will Johnson, Canadian footballer
1987 – Mulopo Kudimbana, Congolese footballer
1987 – Nyasha Mushekwi, Zimbabwean footballer
1987 – Dominik Roels, German cyclist
1987 – Maša Zec Peškirič, Slovenian tennis player
1987 – Ikumi Yoshimatsu, Japanese actress
1988 – Glaiza de Castro, Filipino actress and singer
1988 – Ashton Eaton, American decathlete
1988 – Rolands Freimanis, Latvian basketball player
1988 – Vanessa Hessler, Italian-American model and actress
1988 – Aleksandar Lazevski, Macedonian footballer
1988 – Ángel Mena, Ecuadorian footballer
1988 – Valérie Tétreault, Canadian tennis player
1988 – Pieter Timmers, Belgian swimmer
1988 – Nemanja Tomić, Serbian footballer
1988 – Ben Turner, English footballer
1989 – Doğuş Balbay, Turkish basketball player
1989 – Kayla Banwarth, American indoor volleyball player
1989 – Férébory Doré, Congolese footballer
1989 – Sergey Fesikov, Russian swimmer
1989 – Henrikh Mkhitaryan, Armenian footballer
1989 – Matteo Pelucchi, Italian cyclist
1989 – Zhang Shuai, Chinese tennis player
1990 – Arash Afshin, Iranian footballer
1990 – Diogo Amado, Portuguese footballer
1990 – Andriy Bohdanov, Ukrainian footballer
1990 – Kelly Rohrbach, American model and actress
1990 – André Martins, Portuguese footballer
1990 – Knowledge Musona, Zimbabwean footballer
1990 – Jacob Smith, American actor
1990 – Doni Tata Pradita, Indonesian motorcycle racer
1991 – Ali Al-Busaidi, Omani footballer
1991 – Javier Calvo, Spanish actor and director
1991 – Mohammad Ghadir, Arab-Israeli footballer
1991 – Jan Hirt, Czech cyclist
1991 – Mateusz Mika, Polish volleyball player
1991 – Alfredo Ortuño, Spanish footballer
1991 – Marta Pagnini, Italian gymnast
1991 – Craig Roberts, Welsh actor and director
1991 – Luis Alfonso Rodríguez, Mexican footballer
1992 – Verónica Cepede Royg, Paraguayan tennis player
1992 – Sven Erik Bystrøm, Norwegian cyclist
1992 – James Duckworth, Australian tennis player
1992 – Kwame Karikari, Ghanaian footballer
1992 – Nicolás Mezquida, Uruguayan footballer
1992 – Roland Szolnoki, Hungarian footballer
1993 – Clément Mignon, French swimmer
1993 – Muralha, Brazilian footballer
1993 – Chiara Pierobon, Italian cyclist (d. 2015)
1994 – Amin Affane, Swedish footballer
1994 – Laura Robson, Australian-English tennis player
1994 – Kang Seung-yoon, South Korean singer-songwriter and actor
1994 – Nils Allen “Booboo” Stewart Jr., American actor
1994 – Lim Kim, South Korean singer and actress
1995 – Yulia Belorukova, Russian cross-country skier
1995 – Nguyễn Công Phượng, Vietnamese footballer
1995 – Marine Johannes, French basketball player
1995 – Alanna Kennedy, Australian footballer player
1996 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer
1996 – Aldo Kalulu, French footballer
1996 – Cristian Pavón, Argentine footballer
1997 – Jeremy Shada, American actor, musician and singer
1998 – Borna Sosa, Croatian footballer
1999 – Rubina Ali, Indian actress
2004 – Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway, 2nd in line for the Norwegian throne.

Deaths :
420 – Yazdegerd I, king of the Sassanid Empire
496 – Epiphanius of Pavia, Italian bishop and saint (b. 438)
917 – Erchanger, Duke of Swabia (b. 880)
918 – Liu Zhijun, Chinese general
939 – Yang Pu, Chinese emperor (b. 900)
942 – An Chongrong, Chinese general (Five Dynasties)
945 – Yang Tan, Chinese general and governor
1118 – Pope Paschal II (b. 1050)
1203 – Agnes II, Abbess of Quedlinburg (b. 1139)
1320 – Árni Helgason, Icelandic bishop (b. c. 1260)
1527 – Juan de Grijalva, Spanish explorer (b. 1489)
1546 – Azai Sukemasa, Japanese daimyō (b. 1491)
1609 – Joseph Justus Scaliger, French historian and scholar (b. 1540)
1638 – Ignazio Donati, Italian composer (b. 1570)
1670 – Claude Duval, French highwayman (b. 1643)
1683 – Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (b. 1621)
1699 – Obadiah Walker, English historian and academic (b. 1616)
1706 – Adrien Baillet, French scholar and critic (b. 1649)
1710 – Johann Georg Gichtel, German mystic and critic (b. 1638)
1722 – Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton, English politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1661)
1731 – Ignjat Đurđević, Croatian poet and translator (b. 1675)
1773 – Alexis Piron, French playwright and author (b. 1689)
1774 – Mustafa III, Ottoman sultan (b. 1717)
1775 – Yemelyan Pugachev, Russian rebel (b. 1742)
1789 – Baron d’Holbach, French-German philosopher and author (b. 1723)
1793 – Louis XVI of France (b. 1754)
1795 – Samuel Wallis, English navigator and explorer (b. 1728)
1809 – Josiah Hornblower, American engineer and politician (b. 1729)
1814 – Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, French botanist and author (b. 1737)
1823 – Cayetano José Rodríguez, Argentinian cleric, journalist, and poet (b. 1761)
1831 – Ludwig Achim von Arnim, German poet and author (b. 1781)
1851 – Albert Lortzing, German actor and composer (b. 1801)
1862 – Božena Němcová, Austrian-Czech author and poet (b. 1820)
1870 – Alexander Herzen, Russian philosopher and author (b. 1812)
1872 – Franz Grillparzer, Austrian playwright and poet (b. 1791)
1881 – Wilhelm Matthias Naeff, Swiss lawyer and politician (b. 1802)
1891 – Calixa Lavallée, Canadian-American lieutenant and composer (b. 1842)
1901 – Elisha Gray, American engineer, co-founded Western Electric (b. 1835)
1914 – Theodor Kittelsen, Norwegian painter and illustrator (b. 1857)
1919 – Gojong of Korea (b. 1852)
1919 – Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, Ottoman general and politician, 277th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1839)
1924 – Vladimir Lenin, Russian lawyer and politician (b. 1870)
1926 – Camillo Golgi, Italian physician and pathologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1843)
1928 – George Washington Goethals, American general and engineer (b. 1858)
1931 – Felix Blumenfeld, Russian pianist, composer, and conductor (b. 1863)
1932 – Lytton Strachey, English writer and critic (b. 1880)
1933 – George Moore, Irish author, poet, and critic (b. 1852)



1937 – Marie Prevost, Canadian-American actress and singer (b. 1898)
1938 – Georges Méliès, French actor, director, and producer (b. 1861)
1945 – Rash Behari Bose, Indian soldier and engineer (b. 1886)
1948 – Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, Italian composer and educator (b. 1876)
1950 – George Orwell, British novelist, essayist, and critic (b. 1903)
1955 – Archie Hahn, German-American runner and coach (b. 1880)
1956 – Sam Langford, Canadian-American boxer (b. 1883)
1959 – Cecil B. DeMille, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1881)
1959 – Frances Gertrude McGill, pioneering Canadian forensic pathologist (b. 1882)[9] 1959 – Carl Switzer, American child actor and hunting guide (b. 1927)
1960 – Matt Moore, Irish-American actor and director (b. 1888)
1961 – Blaise Cendrars, Swiss author and poet (b. 1887)
1963 – Acharya Shivpujan Sahay, Indian author, poet, and academic (b. 1893)
1963 – Spiros Xenos, Greek-Swedish painter (b. 1881)
1965 – Gwynne Evans, American swimmer and water polo player (b. 1880)
1967 – Ann Sheridan, American actress (b. 1915)
1968 – Will Lang, Jr., American journalist (b. 1914)
1977 – Sandro Penna, Italian poet and journalist (b. 1906)
1978 – Freda Utley, English scholar and author (b. 1898)
1983 – Lamar Williams, American bass player (b. 1949)
1984 – Giannis Skarimpas, Greek playwright and poet (b. 1893)
1984 – Jackie Wilson, American singer (b. 1934)
1985 – James Beard, American chef and author (b. 1903)
1985 – Eddie Graham, American wrestler and promoter (b. 1930)
1987 – Charles Goodell, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician (b. 1926)
1988 – Vincent Lingiari, Australian Aboriginal rights activist (b. 1919)
1989 – Carl Furillo, American baseball player (b. 1922)
1989 – Billy Tipton, American pianist and saxophonist (b. 1914)
1993 – Charlie Gehringer, American baseball player and manager (b. 1903)
1994 – Bassel al-Assad, Son of the former President of the Syrian Arab Republic Hafez al-Assad (b. 1962)
1998 – Jack Lord, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1920)
1999 – Susan Strasberg, American actress (b. 1938)
2002 – Peggy Lee, American singer (b. 1920)
2003 – Paul Haines, American-Canadian poet and songwriter (b. 1933)
2003 – Paul Kuusberg, Estonian journalist and author (b. 1916)
2004 – Yordan Radichkov, Bulgarian author and playwright (b. 1929)
2005 – Theun de Vries, Dutch author and poet (b. 1907)
2005 – John L. Hess, American journalist and critic (b. 1917)
2005 – Kaljo Raid, Estonian cellist, composer, and pastor (b. 1921)
2006 – Ibrahim Rugova, Kosovo journalist and politician, 1st President of Kosovo (b. 1944)
2009 – Krista Kilvet, Estonian journalist, politician and diplomat (b. 1946)
2010 – Paul Quarrington, Canadian author, playwright, guitarist, and composer (b. 1953)
2011 – Theoni V. Aldredge, Greek-American costume designer (b. 1922)
2011 – Dennis Oppenheim, American sculptor and photographer (b. 1938)
2011 – E. V. V. Satyanarayana, Indian director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1958)
2013 – Ahmet Mete Işıkara, Turkish geophysicist and academic (b. 1941)
2013 – Chumpol Silpa-archa, Thai academic and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand (b. 1940)
2013 – Michael Winner, English director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1935)
2015 – Marcus Borg, American scholar, theologian, and author (b. 1942)
2015 – Leon Brittan, English lawyer and politician, Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills (b. 1939)
2015 – Johnnie Lewis, Liberian lawyer and politician, 18th Chief Justice of Liberia (b. 1946)
2016 – Bill Johnson, American skier (b. 1960)
2016 – Mrinalini Sarabhai, a 1992-Padma Bhushan award winner Indian classical dancer, choreographer and instructor. (b. 1918)
2019 – Harris Wofford, American politician, author and civil rights activist (b. 1926)

 

II

[collected from: net-]

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